5 minute read

Written with ASP.NET Core 3.x and .NET 5 in mind.

ASP.NET developers will be familiar with using the default behaviour of the [Authorize] attribute to decorate a Razor Page and a class or method in a controller, and through some magic, users are required to authenticate.

We’ll also use it for authorization via roles, claims, policies and requirements i.e.

  • Roles ([Authorize(Roles = "Admin")])
  • Policies ([Authorize(Policy = "RequireAdminRole")])

And select specific authentication schemes using [Authorize(AuthenticationSchemes = JwtBearerDefaults.AuthenticationScheme)].

The Confusing Bit for ASP.NET Newcomers

  • Authorization is about permissions
  • Authentication is about identity

Of course! Right?

But you can be forgiven for thinking that authorization and authentication have merged into one under AuthorizeAttribute:

  • If we want a user authenticated we add the [Authorize].
  • If we want to check if a user is authorized we can add [Authorize].

The attribute is only one of many ways to do things but I just wanted to say now, that I’m not a fan of this ambiguity being the default for simple authorization 😁.

For this article we’ll play along with it as we’re just looking at whatever it takes to enforce authentication.

To be fair

The authorization middleware does actually call authentication directly, so the behaviour of the attribute isn’t totally out there - it makes sense that an attempt to authorize should also ensure authentication has taken place first.

Anyway let’s get back on topic…

Undesirable: Fail Open

The success of the AuthorizeAttribute depends on developers remembering to add it whenever they add a new action or page that needs securing. If it is unintentionally omitted for an action that should require an authenticated user, there is no fallback to the safer option of enforcing authentication. In engineering, this is referred to as fail open - the failure was not adding the attribute, the resulting behaviour was to remain open, that is, continue as if no authentication was required.

Desirable: Fail Closed

When securing a web app we typically want the opposite behaviour, referred to as fail closed or fail secure - if we make a mistake and forget to add the attribute over an action, we want the action to fail, that is, to deny anonymous, unauthenticated access.

In ASP.NET we can achieve this and fail secure by reversing the logic and requiring all actions to be authenticated and then add [AllowAnonymous] to anything that does not require authentication if we like.

Method 1: Authorization Filter

It was the recommended way to enforce authentication globally before the release of ASP.NET Core 3.x and the shift to endpoint routing (endpoint routing, amongst other things, introduced authorization as middleware).

Of course, if you’ve not found a need to migrate onto endpoint routing then this is still the way to go for now.

Either way, it’s worth being able to recognise it so that you can do a quick rewrite to one of the methods further on when you encounter it in a codebase.

The following applies a filter that implements the DefaultPolicy across all Razor Pages:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)

      .AddMvcOptions(options => options.Filters
          .Add(new AuthorizeFilter()));

This is the same as adding an [Authorize] everywhere i.e. if you are an authenticated user, you are authorized - no other requirements.

You may also find it using RequireAuthenticatedUser() to build a policy and avoid any dependency on DefaultPolicy (the behaviour of which can be changed in code); but then still, it’s applied as a filter:

 var policy = new AuthorizationPolicyBuilder()
options.Filters.Add(new AuthorizeFilter(policy));

Or within a custom policy:

        .AddMvcOptions(options => options.Filters
            .Add(new AuthorizeFilter("UsersPolicy")));

services.AddAuthorization(options =>
      policyBuilder => policyBuilder.RequireRole("Domain Users"));

Ultimately, as a filter it will apply to all pages and actions unless overridden so it does the job of globally enforcing authentication.

The preferred way, from ASP.NET Core 3.x on is to set a fallback authentication policy in Startup.cs:

services.AddAuthorization(options =>
  options.FallbackPolicy = new AuthorizationPolicyBuilder()

This will apply to any Razor Page, controller or action where no authorization behaviour has been defined.

It uses the endpoint routing that was introduced fully in ASP.NET Core 3.0, at endpoint level using the RequireAuthorizaton() extension method again, with the bonus of being able to add authorization to the health check endpoint and our SignalR endpoint (the AuthorizeFilter approach only works with Razor Pages and MVC).

app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>

If we wanted to allow unauthenticated access to the health checks we use an extension method on IEndpointConventionBuilder that is the same as adding [AllowAnonymous]:

       .WithMetadata(new AllowAnonymousAttribute());

There’s no overload here for RequireAuthorization() that takes a policy (because we’re building one) but it can still be altered through the fluent builder i.e.

options.FallbackPolicy = new AuthorizationPolicyBuilder()

Don’t Confuse it with DefaultPolicy

FallBackPolicy is about what to do regarding authorization when it is not explicitly set for a given controller, page, endpoint or action.

DefaultPolicy is the behaviour to follow where authorization is explicitly set for a given controller, page, endpoint or action but no policy has been provided to determine authorization behaviour i.e.




The first one would use the DefaultPolicy.

It can be changed in code but out of the box this policy just requires that all users must be authenticated to be authorized.

Method 3: Razor Page Conventions

As the title suggests, this method is only intended for Razor Pages. It might appeal where a single point for globally configuring all authorization in a fluent style is preferred.

In the following example for Startup.cs, we are enforcing authentication from the root folder and then allowing anonymous access to specific folders and pages:

        options =>

We could instead have just used options.Conventions.AuthorizeFolder("/") and then added [AllowAnonymous] on any Razor Pages we don’t require authentication on. The key takeaway here is another approach to enforcing a fail secure approach to authentication globally.


It clearly makes sense in most normal scenarios to set fall-back behaviour globally that requires authentication by default.

This ensures that where authentication is unintentionally omitted from a page or action during future development, we assume authentication is expected rather than none.

We’ve looked at three ways to do this: where unauthenticated behaviour has to be explicitly called out by [AllowAnonymous]; Razor Page conventions; or applying the metadata for AllowAnonymousAttribute directly to an endpoint. All of these have their valid use cases but expect to use method 2 for new Core or .NET 5 work using endpoint routing.